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Section and Alphabetical Listing
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monitor colour depth. Allows only 256 colours to be displayed simultaneously
also called '256 Colours' on the MacOS. Many older computers only
have 8-Bit displays that are inadequate to display true colour values
16-bit [Colour] - monitor colour depth. Allows thousands (approx
32 thousand) of colours to be displayed simultaneously, also called
'Thousands of Colours' on the MacOS. This is still a poor choice
to show true colour values on screen.
24-bit [Colour] - monitor colour depth. Allows millions (approx
16 million) of colours to be displayed simultaneously, sometimes
referred to as 'true colour' producing images of photographic quality,
also called 'Millions of Colours' on the MacOS.
Aspect Ratio [Principle] - 35mm slides aspect ratio. 35mm frame
size is not the same as the ratio for PowerPoint's "On Screen Show",
it is effectively 'narrower' or 'longer'.
4:3 Aspect Ratio [Principle] - a common display aspect ratio.
800x600 is a 4:3 aspect ratio, also the approximate ratio for PowerPoint's
"On Screen Show".
- a type of colour model such as RGB used by computer screens that
creates all the colours by adding varying amounts of the additive
primaries: red, green, and blue. When mixed in correct proportions,
the additive primaries produce white.
Ascender [Typographics] - the vertical part of some lowercase
letters such as b, d and h.
Aspect Ratio [Principle] - the ratio between the horizontal
and vertical dimension of your monitor display, or for example any
other media such as an A4 piece of paper. It is described as an arithmetical
ratio, the dimensions of A4 paper for example is 210x297mm, therefore
the ratio = 1:1.41. Similarly a common display aspect ratio of 800x600
pixels has a 4:3 aspect ratio.
an imaginary line running along the base of lower case letters.
Bit [Measurement] - Binary Digit. A bit is a single computer
digit (either a "1" or a "0"). Eight bits = 1 Byte, which is approximately
a single character of text.
or Bit Image Graphic (.bmp) [File Type] - a graphic image composed
from a pattern of dots, the position of each dot in the image must
be specified as RGB, often used to distinguish images which are
pixel based as compared to images which are vector based. A screen
grab/shot from your monitor is a .bmp image.
Bitmapped Character [Typographics] - a character printed
from a pattern of dots, the data specifying the dot pattern of each
character is represented as a fixed pattern of dots, as opposed
to Postscript characters or fonts.
Byte [Measurement] - a computer data unit, which represents
a single character for most languages. One Byte is made up of eight
Bullet [Typographics] - special typographic symbols, normally
used to mark a list entry in a report for example.
set [Typographics] -
a specific collection of letters, numbers and symbols, usually used
to provide the characters needed in a particular language.
CMYK [Colour] - a subtractive colour model used in colour-printing
systems based around 4- colour ink on offset lithographic presses
(Magazines, Newspapers, Brochures etc· ) - cyan (C), magenta (M),
yellow (Y) and keystone black (K). Theoretically, 100% of each of
C, M, and Y produces black, but in practice black must be added
to obtain a pure colour.
Colour [Colour] - our visual perception of wavelengths of light.
Light is processed and transmitted to the brain by the eye. The
brain then interprets the wavelengths as colour. The basic colours
in the visible spectrum are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo,
Colour Depth [Colour] - possible range of colours that can
be used in an image. These are generally Grayscale, 8-bit, 16-bit,
and 24-bit. Higher colour depths provide a wider range of colours,
but result in larger file sizes for a given image dimension.
Colour Lookup Table [Application Feature] - see "Palette".
Colour Space [Colour] - a mathematical model that describes
colours. Common models include RGB, CMYK. Also called "Colour Model".
[Principle] - the degree of difference between the lightest
and darkest part of a picture.
a collection of characters (numbers, letters and special characters)
with a common design, defined on the basis of its typeface, type
style and weight.
[Typographics] - Standard Type 1 Postscript Printer Fonts: Avante
Garde, Bookman, Courier, Helvetica, Helvetica Narrow, New Century
Schoolbook, Palatino, Symbol, Times, Zapf Chancery, Zapf Dingbats.
Fonts [Typographics] - Macintosh Standard System Fonts (OS9):
Apple Chancery, Capitals, Charcoal, Chicago, Courier, Gadget, Geneva,
Helvetica, Hoefler Text, Monaco, New York, Palatino, Sand, Skia,
Symbol, Techno, Textile, Times [ Additional non-system fonts added
with installation include :- Andale Mono, Arial, Arial Black, Comic
Sans MS, Courier New, Georgia, Impact, Times New Roman, Trebuchet
MS, Verdana, Webdings]
Fonts [Typographics] - Windows Standard System Fonts: Arial,
Arial Black, Bookman Old Style, Cartoon, Century Gothic, Comic Sans,
Gill Sans, Gill Sans Ultra Bold, Lucida Sans, Impact, News Gothic,
Rockwell Bold, Tahoma, Times New Roman, Trebuchet MS, Verdana, Wide
[Telecom] - File Transfer Protocol. A common Internet protocol
for transferring files between computers. Often used for downloading
files, such as patches or software updates.
Font Metrics [Typographics] - the set of widths of each character
in a font.
Footers [Typographics] - text repeated at the bottom of each
page for a whole document.
a curve describing how the mid tones of an image appears (Not to
be confused with 'brightness' and 'contrast'). Changing the value
of the gamma affects middle tones while the white and black of the
image is unaltered. Gamma adjustment is used to compensate for differences
between Macintosh (1.8) and Windows (2.2) displays.
Gamut [Colour] - the range of possible colours within a given
colour space. For example, the gamut of video playback is dramatically
more limited than the gamut of the RGB colour space of computer
GIF (.gif) [File Type] - Compuserve Graphics Interchange Format.
A bit-mapped graphics file format limited to images up to 256 (8-bit)
colours. This format is widely used online and works best with illustrations
with areas of flat colour. (JPEG is a better option for photographic
Grayscale Image [Colour] - an image that contains a limited
number of tones (256) from white to black.
Characters [Typographics] -
special set of characters used to enable printing in a particular
Intranet [Telecom] - a large private network environment,
often providing data and audio communications and increasingly video-conference
IP [Telecom] - Internet Protocol. Commonly used protocol
for transferring data over the Internet.
ISDN [Telecom] - Integrated Digital Services Networks. A
moderately fast connection to the Internet. Theoretical throughput
is either approximately 8 KBps or 16 KBps depending on whether using
single channel (64kbps) or two channel (128kbps) connections.
[Telecom] - Internet Service Provider. A Company, which provides
access to Internet related services, often including connectivity,
email accounts, and web hosting.
or JPG (.jpg, .jff, .jtf) [File Type] -
Joint Photographic Experts Group. JPEG is a lossy bit- mapped image
format widely used for online graphics. JPEG works well for photographic
images. (GIF works better for flat colour illustrations)
Justification [Typographics] - the alignment of text with margins
either left, right or centre justified.
Justify [Typographics] - a text block with even left and
right margins, otherwise known as fully justified.
adjusting the space between individual letters to produce a more
KiloByte (KB) [Measurement] - a unit that describes file
size. A KiloByte is 1024 Bytes. The term 'KBps' is short for KiloBytes
per second, which is a unit of data rate measurement used in multimedia.
Not to be confused with 'kbps' (see below). 1KB = 1024Bytes = 8192bits
Kilobit (kb) [Measurement] - a kilobit is 1000 bits. The
term 'kbps' is short for kilobits per second, which is a unit of
data rate measurement used in reference to audio data rates and
telecommunications. Not to be confused with KBps (see above). 1000bits
= 1kb = 125Bytes i.e. a kilobit is 8 times smaller (or slower referring
to data transfer) that a KiloByte. e.g. 56kb modems operate at =
Photo CD (.pcd) [File Type] - Photo CD is a format which is
easily accessible by both Macintosh and PC, storing up to 100 images.
Each image is stored in a range of resolution levels. Standard Resolution
gives 5 levels, from thumbnail through to full photo-resolution
at 35mm size
Local Area Network. A network that connects computers and peripherals,
often within just one building.
[Typographics] - a description of page orientation. Landscape
(or horizontal) as the name suggests, has the longest paper edge
running left to right across the screen.
Leading [Typographics] - the amount of space between lines
[File Type] - describes a process in which no information is
lost. Saving a file repeatedly with lossless compression will not
affect the image quality.
Lossy [File Type] - compression in which information is lost.
Saving a file repeatedly with lossy compression will additionally
degrade the image quality. This degradation is known as 'generation
loss, e.g. JPEG is a lossy file format when repeatedly opened resaved
[Application Feature] -
Apple's Macintosh operating system.
Margin [Typographics] - the space around the 'content area'
of the page or slide. Media [Principle] - a) a generic term for
elements such as movies, sounds, pictures, etc. b) storage or transmission
devices - such as diskettes, CD-R's, Zipú disks, email, etc.
Megabyte (mb) [Measurement] - 1,048,576 bytes.
Metameric (metamerism) [Principle] - colours that are spectrally
different (having different wavelengths), but which appear visually
identical under specified viewing conditions.
[Application Feature] -
the list of colours which are used in a colour image. Palettes may
be as restricted e.g. WEB Palette of 217 colours, or as wide as
required depending on the final medium being used to display the
Pantone Matching System [Colour] - A system of solid ink
colour mixing matched to swatch-book samples of numbered colours.
Pantone Colours are international standards for colour reproduction
of printed materials.
(.pcx) [File Type] - an image file format, developed by Zsoft
(.pct, .pict) [File Type] - an image file format containing
both vector and bitmap images, as well as text, and an alpha-channel.
PICT is a common image format on MacOS.
[Measurement] - a picture element, the smallest displayed unit
of a bitmapped image. A typical resolution computer monitor is 800
pixels wide and 600 pixels tall.
[Principle] - when the pixels that make up an image become 'jagged',
often the result of over enlargement, or compression artefacts.
size [Measurement] - a measure of the height of characters.
Portrait [Typographics] - a description of page orientation.
Portrait (or vertical) as the name suggests, has the longest paper
edge running top to bottom, down the screen.
(.ps, .prn, .cps) [File Type] - a page description language
used as standard by a great deal of software and by most mid-high
area [Typographics] - the defined area on a slide that can be
printed, excluding any margins.
Driver [Application Feature] - the program which converts the
data from an application program into printable output.
Colour [Colour] - four colour (CMYK) printing that prints all
available colours by separating an image into its components Cyan,
Magenta, Yellow, Black. The separations are turned into printing
plates that are then superimposed one on top of the other during
the printing process.
Spacing [Typographics] - printing in which narrow characters
(such as 'i') are given less space than wide ones (such as 'w').
Red Green Blue. An additive colour space that directly translates
to the red, green, and blue phosphors used in computer monitors.
Each colour is described by the strength of its red, green, and
blue components. The colour space has a very large gamut and can
reproduce a very wide range of colours.
Resolution [Measurement] - the measure of a printer or output
device's ability to produce finely detailed output - usually measured
the vividness or purity of a colour. The less gray a colour contains,
the more saturated it is.
Fonts [Typographics] - fonts which can be printed in a range
of sizes without coarsening their appearance.
Subtractive Colours [Colour] - colours that are formed by
the absorption or subtraction of frequencies of light. In a subtractive
model such as CMYK, a white surface reflects all wavelengths of
visible light, while a black surface absorbs them.
Sun Raster (.ras) [File Type] - an image file format, developed
by Sun Microsystems Inc.
(Extension) [File Type] - the last part of a file name indicating
the file type.
Common suffixes are:
Bitmap - .bmp
JPEG - .jpg
Postscript - .ps or .prn
Microsoft PowerPoint - .ppt
Microsoft PowerPoint Template - .pot
QuickTime - .mov
Video for Windows - .avi
[File Type] -
refers to formats that store graphical information in terms of mathematical
equations, describing the objects portrayed. Since these images
don't have any pixels, vector images scale perfectly to any size.
Adobe Illustrator, Corel Draw, Macromedia Freehand / Flash, use